Happy Paws Interesting Info

Welcome to the Happy Paws Interesting Info. This is where you can view any news stories and articles that we have posted on the web site. Select the heading or the 'read more..' button to read the article in its entirety.

Beyond the 5 Freedoms of Animal Welfare - click to see more info

Beyond the 5 Freedoms of Animal Welfare

WDJ’s Training Editor makes a case for considering our dogs’ well-being, rather than just their welfare, when evaluating their quality of life.


The “Five Freedoms,” a set of standards for humane animal care, have long been internationally respected and embraced by animal protection organizations, including the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Humane Society of the United States, and many more. The American Humane Association calls the Five Freedoms the gold standard of animal welfare.

The original guidelines were developed in response to a 1965 United Kingdom Government report on livestock husbandry. Each of the Freedoms was followed by a “Provision” that explained how the goal could be met. Initially focused on livestock, the application of these five principles of care has been generalized to include the keeping of companion animals, too.

The Five Freedoms and Correlating Five Provisions

These are the Five Freedoms and Five Provisions as currently accepted worldwide:

  1. Freedom from hunger or thirst, provided by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor.
  2. Freedom from discomfort, provided by an appropriate environment, including shelter and a comfortable resting area.
  3. Freedom from pain, injury, or disease, provided by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment.
  4. Freedom to express (most) normal behavior, provided by sufficient space, proper facilities, and company of the animal’s own kind.
  5. Freedom from fear and distress, provided by ensuring conditions and treatment that avoid mental suffering.

Many of our agricultural practices still fall short of these standards. Sadly, even many companion-animal-keeping practices fall short in puppy mills, and even in some homes, shelters, and rescues.

An Even More Progressive Model: The Five Domains

More recently, a more progressive approach to animal welfare has been proposed – one that parallels the move toward more dog-friendly dog training. David J. Mellor,Ph.D., Director of the Animal Welfare Science and Bioethics Centre and professor of Animal Welfare Science at Massey University in New Zealand, developed and promotes a set of guidelines he calls the Five Domains. His model emphasizes maximizing our animals’ positive experiences, not just minimizing negative ones. This approach moves beyond animal welfare (taking care of an animal’s basic needs) to the modern, far more progressive and humane concept of animal well-being (ensuring the animal’s quality of life).

In a 2016 paper published in Animals (an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal devoted entirely to animals, including zoology and veterinary sciences), Dr. Mellor stated, “A marked increase in scientific understanding over the last two decades now shows that the Five Freedoms do not capture, either in the specifics or the generality of their expression, the breadth and depth of current knowledge of the biological processes that are germane to understanding animal welfare and to guiding its management.”

Dr. Mellor more fully described his model in a 2017 paper also published in Animals. “The Five Domains Model is a focusing device to facilitate systematic, structured, comprehensive and coherent assessment of animal welfare,” he wrote. “The purpose of each of the five domains is to draw attention to areas that are relevant to both animal welfare assessment and management.”

Dr. Mellor proposed that there are five domains of critical importance for modern, humane animal keeping.

In order to provide clear guidance on beneficial objectives for animal welfare management, Dr. Mellor described correlating provisions in each of these domains. Here we list his Five Domains, followed by questions we developed to help you assess how well you might be meeting – or falling short of meeting – these provisions when caring for your own dogs.

1: Good Nutrition

Provide ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor. Minimize thirst and hunger, and enable eating to be a pleasurable experience.

Self-assessment: Do you feed a good quality food that is also pleasant to taste for your dog? Do you add extra tasty tidbits, vary his diet and control the presence of any aversives while he eats, perhaps even incorporate scent work with his meals to make sure he has a pleasurable dining experience? Have water accessible at all times (except perhaps when he is sleeping)? Avoid the use of water or food deprivation as a training tool?

2: Good Environment

Provide shade/shelter or suitable housing, good air quality, and comfortable resting areas. Minimize discomfort and exposure, and promote thermal, physical, and other comforts.

Self-assessment: Do you make sure your dog always has access to areas with appropriate/comfortable temperature levels – heat in the winter and air conditioning in the summer? Does he have options to choose for himself how warm or cool he wants to be? If walking with your dog in heat or cold, do you provide various means for him to stay cool or warm as needed, depending on the dog: warm jackets, boots to protect paws from hot pavement, dampening his coat to allow for cooling evaporation?

3: Good Health

Prevent or rapidly diagnose and treat disease and injury, and foster good muscle tone, posture, and cardiorespiratory function. Minimize breathlessness, nausea, pain, and other aversive experiences and promote the pleasures of robustness, vigor, strength, and well-coordinated physical activity.

Self-assessment: Is your dog up-to-date on all necessary prophylactic treatments? Do you seek veterinary care promptly at the first sign of illness or injury? Do you consistently mitigate temporary or long-term pain or discomfort with appropriate analgesics? Is your dog fit, well-exercised, and in good weight, not over-crated or overweight?

4: Appropriate behavior

Provide sufficient space, proper facilities, congenial company, and appropriately varied conditions. Minimize threats and unpleasant restrictions on behavior and promote engagement in rewarding activities.

Self-assessment: Do you allow and encourage your dog to behave like a dog? Does he have regular opportunities to bark, dig, run around, jump on things, play, get wet, get dirty, and otherwise act like a dog – with you, and/or other dogs or individuals of other species, if he enjoys their company?

5: Positive Mental Experiences

Provide safe, congenial, and species-specific opportunities to have pleasurable experiences. Promote various forms of comfort, pleasure, interest, confidence, and a sense of control.

Self-assessment: Do you take him places he likes to go and encourage activities that engage his mind, challenge his creativity, give him choices, spark his curiosity, encourage him to think and problem-solve, build his confidence, and otherwise enhance his enjoyment of life?

Score Your Own Dog-Keeping

We would expect that Whole Dog Journal readers in general are doing a good job of providing for their animal companions’ welfare. Even so, we can all do some self-examination to ensure that we are doing as much as we possibly can to also ensure our animal companions’ well-being.

Take another look at the Five Domains and Provisions, and then do a critical self-examination of all the things you provide to enhance your own dog’s well-being. If you can honestly check off all five of the boxes, our hats are off to you: You are a dog-companion superstar and the champion of your dog’s well-being.

If, on the other hand, you identify some areas that need work, then get started on any needed changes – and kudos to you for your willingness to commit to providing your dog with the best life possible.

The Ultimate Guide for Travelling with Pets - click to see more info

The Ultimate Guide to Traveling With Pets [2017]

Guide to adopting and Caring for rescue Animals - click to see more info
Pets are incredible. But not all are treated equally. Some animals have a terrible start in life and the fortunes of others can take a turn for the worst. Many find themselves in rescue centres waiting to be placed in a new home.

This guide is a very comprehensive guide on why people should adopt rescue animals and contains plenty of useful information about pet adoption such as the benefits of adopting, usual costs of rehoming rescue pets, how to choose the right pet, an overview of the usual adoption process, and many more useful resources. 
Dog Separation Anxiety - click to see more info

The 7 Signs Of Dog Separation Anxiety You Need To Watch Out For by Tony Knight. 

If you didn't see my video about dog separation anxiety, I want to start by asking you to imagine this scenario...

Dog Integration into their new family/pack - click to see more info

This article is designed to help people, who are either thinking of adopting a rescue dog, or have adopted a rescue dog and want to better understand how to integrate their new addition into their family....

More on Dog Introduction - click to see more info

posted by Sally on Saturday 05 June 2010.
The following includes information adapted from "Creating a Peaceable Kingdom: How to Live with More Than One Pet" by Cynthia D. Miller and from various PAW volunteers. ...

How to introduce a new dog to a resident cat - click to see more info

Introducing a new dog to a resident cat, the plan, preparation, the introduction, proceding with caution and what to do if it does not work out.

Animals - our partners through life - click to see more info

In a world older and more complete than ours they move finished and complete, gifted with extensions of the senses we have lost or never attained, living by voices we shall never hear.

Cinderella soprano had a passion for pet welfare - click to see more info

Cinderella soprano had a passion for pet welfare Norma Faulkner ... was billed as the "adorable songster of radio". August 20, 2009 Norma Faulkner, 1922-2009

NORMA FAULKNER'S passions ranged from singing on stage, radio and television to animal birth control. She retired from teaching music only early this year and, until the day she died at 86, was still working for her beloved animals, seeking to reduce their numbers by desexing.

Why do animals get dumped in Pounds? - click to see more info

Each year in Australian Pounds, around 250,000 healthy cats and dogs are killed. It is extraordinary that so few people are aware of this fact. Why is this?

Five tips for a happy cat - click to see more info

Drinking, exercising, a companion/friend, work their brains and encourage them to go vertical... 5 tips for a Happy Cats

Letter from the Editor of Pet Rescue - Cat Power - click to see more info

2009: The year of the cat...

Becoming a kitten carer - click to see more info

Would you love to care for kittens, or have a companion cat, but aren't sure you can commit for a lifetime? Then foster caring might just be the answer for you.

Why de-sex your pet? - click to see more info

HappyPaws Haven looks at health, behavoural and cost benefits of de-sexing your pet

"I rescued a human today" - click to see more info

 Written by a 'pound pup'...

Thoughts for today about our special animals - click to see more info

A great poem, dedicated to those who rescue and adopt the little forgotten souls from the pounds and some wise thoughts

How could you? - click to see more info

When I was a puppy I entertained you with my antics and made you laugh. You called me your child and despite a number of chewed shoes and a couple of murdered throw pillows, I became your best friend…

Pet industry, animal groups bare teeth over inquiry - click to see more info

A bitter war of words has erupted between animal welfare groups and the pet industry over calls for a public inquiry into the number of healthy dogs and cats that are killed annually.

Nick Galvin
January 16, 2009

RSPCA says adoption is best - click to see more info

 Nationwide in 2008, the RSPCA received 70,514 dogs at its pounds. Of those, 19,276 were rehomed but nearly 24,000 were put down

Nick Galvin
December 23, 2008


Tough on old pals when love turns into pet hate - click to see more info

If it is true the highest test of a civilisation is the way it cares for its most vulnerable, then Australia's animal welfare record is a sad indictment.

Financial crisis hits Perth's cats - click to see more info

Perth's moggies are the latest victim of the global credit crunch.

Aja Styles
April 22, 2009

Barking glad: dog rescue group safe - click to see more info

SYDNEY'S biggest private dog rescue group has received an unexpected financial boost after the State Government stepped in to slash its rent from $34,500 to just $400 a year.

Dog lovers come to rescue at Monika's - click to see more info

SYDNEY'S biggest private dog rescue group, which saves more than a thousand animals from being put down each year, has won a last-minute reprieve and will be able to keep its doors open for at least three more months.

Nick Galvin
January 16, 2009

Monika's doggie rescue on borrowwed time - click to see more info

Recession bites ... Monika Biernacki may be forced to close her shelter even as more and more people are dumping their pets to save money.

Nick Galvin
April 7, 2009

Sally's not-so-Happy Paws - click to see more info


SHE may be moving her controversial animal shelter out of a residential area, but Sally Rogers is not out of the doghouse just yet.

Green light for Happy Paws shelter - click to see more info


IT HASN'T been an easy road for Sally Rodgers, but last night she received the news she was hoping for.

Community cat de-sexing program - click to see more info

We need to care for our community's cats!

Heartless cat and dog dumpers - click to see more info

Clarence valley pound has re-homed one cat and euthanised 187 in the last six months. The article responses to this apalling statistic.

About Sally Rogers - click to see more info

 Personal Profile 

Sally Rogers


Founder, President, Public Officer and General Manager for HappyPaws Haven Inc and Rescue Officer for the Belgian Shepherd Club of NSW. My role has been to build, develop and manage the animal welfare charity known as HappyPaws Haven Inc.

10 years in the animal welfare industry in various roles in Sydney and in Grafton covering:

·         Business operations management

·         Supervisor of students studying Companion Animal Services and Pet Care course at TAFE and other Educational Institutions

·         Rescue of Cats and Dogs from Impounding Facilities, AWL, RSPCA  and private establishments

·         Foster caring and hand rearing of dogs and cats

·         Veterinary and Supplier Relationship Management

·         Marketing  Management

·         Purchasing Management

·         Canine Temperament Assessment

·         Communications management and Media Relations

·         Adoption and Surrender management

·         Animal Health Management

·         Fund Raising Management

·         Liaising with Local Government and State Government Officers

·         Webpage, Twitter and Facebook Content Management

·         Process, Procedure and Policy development and management

·         Management of computer installation

·         Volunteer recruitment and Management

·         Site Risk and OHS Management

·         Management of the Foster Carer Program

·         Proven personal, task and project management.

·         Customer Service Management

·         General Not-for profit and Association compliance management

·         Project management of designing, planning and building the new shelter

Business builder, experienced business doctor, business unit manager, trainer, mentor, coach and change agent. My role has been to manage, close, fix or build business units principally for IBM throughout Australia and the Asia Pacific Rim..

Strengths are in leadership, business process re-engineering, trouble shooting, sales, sales management, brand management, people management and development, training, business operations and development.

25 years in the computer industry in various roles in Sydney and Asia covering:

·         Business operations management

·         Business, Sales and Technical training of IBM personnel

·         Performance and Competency based consulting

·         Marketing / Sales management

·         Sales and Sales support

·         Government Tender Process Management

·         New business development

·         Business consulting

·         Business coaching

·         Management development

·         Systems management

·         Systems development

·         Management of computer installations

·         Customer satisfaction process and program management

·         Proven personal, task and project management.

Ten years experience in Medical Technology including medical laboratory management.


MBA Macquarie Uni

BSc (Bio Med) UWA/UTS

Countless other courses covering Intellectual Property, Contract Law, Cost Accounting, Project Mgmt, Business Coaching, Wine production, Navigation, Real Estate Practice, Workplace Assessment & Training and Animal Behaviour, Training and Shelter Mgmt.                       


Personal Interests

Leisure Interests

                        Member of the Belgian Shepherd Club of NSW

                        Member of Dogs NSW

                        Member of Grafton Dogs Obedience Club

                        Member of the Mercedes Benz Car Club of Australia (NSW)

                        Sailing with Seamanship, Radio, First Aid and Skippers Certificates

                        Navigation with Coastal and Celestial Navigation Certificates


                        Member of the Australian Wine Society

                        Member of Graduate Management Association of Australia

                        Member of Macquarie Graduate Management School Alumni

                        Member of Australian School of Business


Personal Interests

                        Listening to music

                        Going to the Ballet, Opera & Theatre

                        Reading and Learning new things

                        Developing young people as a mentor

                        Business coaching

                        Collecting and cellaring good wine


Employment History


April 2006 to current

HappyPaws Haven 

Volunteer animal rescuer, carer & General Manager

Rescued, nursed, cared and re-homing of kittens, cats and dogs in the Clarence Valley and Coffs Harbour Regions for HappyPaws Haven. We are also web based resource for other rescue groups and private individuals needing assistance in the re-homing of their animals, and have a restricted access animal shelter and re-homing centre near  Grafton, in Clarence Valley, Northern NSW, Australia. To date we have Rescued approximately 1230 cats, kittens, puppies and dogs. On average we re-home 150 dogs and 75 cats per year.

  • Set up HappyPaws Haven Animal Rescue Centre near Grafton
  • Built the facilities for animal care
  • Put the business process in place
  • Negotiated discounted vet care
  • Educated volunteers, TAFE students and School students in responsible pet owner ship and animal care
  • Built Public Awareness program
  • Built Pet Adoption Program
  • Manage fund raising activities
  • Provide volunteer work for the ‘work for the dole program’, ‘new start’, ‘Community Service Orders’, those with disabilities and mental health issues trying to return to the work force, school children and others interested in community service
  • Rescued, nursed, cared for and re-homed in excess of 1000 animals 


July 2004 to March 2006

World League for the Protection of Animals (WLPA)

Volunteer animal rescuer and carer    

Assisted in the rescue, responsible for nursing, caring and re-homing of kittens, cats and dogs in the Sydney metropolitan area for World League for the Protection of Animals (WLPA).

  • Rescued, nursed, cared for and re-homed in excess of 200 animals
  • Set up and organised discounted vet care in the lower North Shore
  • Set up and organised discounted animal food products and animal equipment for WLPA
  • Received an award in recognition of my work with WLPA

 September 1985 to February 2003

IBM Australia Limited                  

 Held many and various management roles through out my career with IBM which included roles in Asia Pacific, Australia and New Zealand and locally in Australia and New Sales Wales during this period of nearly 20 years.

 These management roles covered all aspects of IBM’s business from Sales and Marketing, Business operations, Project management, Education and Training, Services Practice Management, Software development, Business Partner management, Customer Satisfaction Mgmt, Business development, Government Sales, Large customer technical support management and Technical support centre management for software developers.

 Prior to IBM

Prior to IBM I was: a specialist Business Consultant for Public Sector Industry for ICL; Australian Systems Development Manager & Manager of Information Systems for Caroma Industries; worked in a software development company, Datec Ltd; work in Medical Laboratory Management and Technical Officer Roles in various Medical Pathology Laboratories in Sydney and in Perth.